Fruit Facts

Plant/Tree Descriptions List

1969-1989 Publications

Seed Bank

Fruit Specialists (Q & A)

CRFG Member Nurseries and Fruit Sources

Tidbits of Info


CRFG Publications 1969-1989 Index - A

Up to Main Index page - Forward to B

ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (Hibiscus esculentus) - Okra
This annual herbaceous shrub originated in Africa where it was cultivated for many generations. The fruit, large green erect pod, is eaten cooked and the seeds are toasted, ground and used as a substitute for coffee. There are many selections.
ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (Hibiscus manihot) - Edible Hibiscus
A shrub from the South Pacific that bears edible leaves when cooked; it grows well in warmer areas of the U.S.

ABIU - Pouteria caimito

ABYSSINIAN BANANA - Ensete ventricosum See Bananas, Ornamental



  • Acerola Comes to California Loaded with Vitamin C. By Floyd L. Cooper. 1971 YB, pp 2-8
  • Culture of Rare Fruits in the San Francisco Bay Area. By J. Garrin Fullington. 1974, pp 3-6
  • For the Beginner: Suggestions for New Gardeners. By Phil Clark. 1985 #2, pp 6-9
  • From the Editor's Mailbag. 1980 #4, pp 4-7
  • Ground Cover Acerola. By Peggy Winter. 1980 #4, p 7
  • Malphighia Suitable for Ground Cover. By John M. Riley. 1976 #3, pp 7-8
  • More Acerolas Than You Can Eat. By Raymond F. Vincent. 1978 #4, pp 13-15
  • Notes from a Grower/experimenter. By David Silber. 1987 #3, pp 20-21
  • Notes on Growing Tropical Fruits in Southeast Florida. By Claude D. Reese. 1977 YB, pp 15-17
  • Some Experiments on Cherimoya Pollination. By Raymond F. Vincent. 1983 YB, pp 30-36

ACHIOTE - Bixa orellana

ACHIRA - Canna edulis


  • Myrtaceae: The Family of the Guava. By John F. Donan. 1984 YB, pp 5-17

ACTINIDIA ARGUTA - Siberian Gooseberry, Hardy Kiwi

A climbing vine from China with feather-veined simple leaves and a brown, hairy fruit about 3" long. The flesh is emerald green with many small seeds and the flavor is pleasant, slightly acid, and juicy. It grows well in California and New Zealand but cannot stand salt exposure and is susceptible to nematodes. See Kiwi



AEGLE MARMELOS - Bael Fruit, Golden Apple, Bengal Quince
A citrus family member that grows as a small spiny tree much desired in India. Fruit is round to pear-shaped, 2-4" in diameter; covered with a smooth, hard rind. Pulp is orange, sweet and aromatic with many seeds in the 8-16 fruit cells. Used for drinks, jellies and eating out-of-hand. The wood is used for carving; the shells are made into boxes and the flowers are made into perfume.


  • Agroforestry in Zaire. By Roy M.Danforth. 1986 YB, pp 37-48
  • Cultivation of Granadillas in South Africa. By Frans A. Kuhne. 1975 YB, pp 56-70
  • Irrigation in South Africa; Kepel Apple. By Brian Lanton. 1983 #1, pp 3-4
  • Letter from Zaire. By Roy Danforth and Paul Noren. 1987 #4, pp 20-24
  • Rare Fruit in Zaire. By Roy Danforth. 1987 J, pp 13-15
  • Subtropical Fruits and Nuts of Spain, Kenya and South Africa. By Muriel B. Fisch 1975 #1, pp 6-13
  • Wild Fruit of South Africa Part I. By Ian Hartland. 1975 #1, pp 13-16


AFRICAN HORNED CUCUMBER - Cucumis metuliferus. Kiwano


  • Halleria lucida. By Bernard King. 1986 #2, p 26
  • Research Corner Notes. By John Riley. 1984 #2, pp 26-27


  • Cherimoya Riddle. By Jim Neitzel. 1982 #3, pp 8-12
  • Coffee Tree in Folger's Commercial. By Peggy Winter. 1984 #3, pp 5-6
  • Jaboticaba. By Peggy Winter. 1980 #4, p 24
  • Planting Instructions for Litchis after Marcotting. By David Guggenheim. 1984 #4, pp 27-28
  • Preliminary Report of a Successful Mango Air Layer. By Louis G. Lopyan. 1988 #3, pp 9-10
  • Sapindaceae Family. By Bill Louscher. 1980 YB, pp 41-45
  • Update from Palm Beach. By Tommy Reese. 1982 #2, pp 19-21


ALEURITES MOLUCCANA - Candlenut, Country Walnut
A large, open and well-formed tree native to tropical Asia. The oily nuts were used by the natives as candles, hence the name of the tree. The shells are black when ripe and, in Hawaii, are polished and used in leis. The kernels are eaten as a relish after baking and act as a laxative on some people. The plant grows in Hawaii and in the warmer protected areas of South Florida. Propagation is by seeds or cuttings.


  • Bits & Pieces: By Peggy Winter. 1985 #1, pp 25-26
  • Myrtaceae: The Family of the Guava. By John F. Donan. 1984 YB, pp 5-17
  • News from the Hills. By David Silber. 1988 #4, pp 5-7


  • A Naturalist in Western China. By Ernest H. Wilson. 1976 YB, p 94
  • Bare Root Time Again. By Jim Neitzel. 1979 #1, pp 18-21
  • Deciduous Fruit Varieties. By Jim Neitzel. 1980 YB, pp 20-40



  • Return to the Philippines. By John McIntyre Jr. 1978 YB, pp 5-13




  • Rare Fruit Sources. By Arlo Hale Smith. 1977 #1, pp 3-16
  • Wild Fruit the United States. By Ian Hartland. 1973 #2, pp 6-7


  • Horticultural Puzzle. By Burt and Muriel Fisch. 1979 #2, p 22

AMAIIT See Rukam


  • Anacardiaceae: Lacquer Mastic and Poison Ivy. By John F. Donan. 1986 YB, pp 1-9

An easily grown evergreen relative of the mango, poison sumac and poison ivy. Very sensitive to cold, especially in warm winters followed by a freeze. Leaves are simple, leathery, light-green with a copper-red blush when young. The nut is not edible or safe when raw. Touching an uncooked nut can cause skin eruptions and the smoke given off by roasting is itself an irritant and poisonous. The cashew apple grows above the nut; it is edible and safe without treatment and makes good jelly or fermented liquor. See Cashew


ANNATTO - Bixa orellana

ANNONA ASIATIC (Cananga odorata) See Yang-yang

This tropical highland is reportedly the best of the annonas. It is a spreading, deciduous, small tree that prefers sun, can't stand wet feet and can survive a light frost but not heavy freezes. A seedling will bear in 4-5 years. The fruit is 3-9" long, generally conical, smooth skin with bumps or dents, green to yellow when ripe. October to May in California. The pulp is white, sweet and aromatic with a custard-like texture. See Cherimoya
A cross between cherimoya and sugar apple which does well in Florida. It resembles the sugar apple in growth but the fruit is much like the cherimoya. Propagation is by budding or grafting to seedling rootstock. See Atemoya
Considered an excellent annona of the tropical lowlands, it is not well known outside Mexico and Guatemala. This slender, erect or spreading tree grows to 20-25'. Maroon-colored 1" flowers yield fruit weighing 1½ lbs., with a sweet flavor like sugar apple. See Illama


ANNONA MONTANA - Mountain soursop
Similar to guanabana but the fruit is less desirable and about the size of a small custard apple. Native to the West Indies, where it is called wild guanabana, the tree is larger than the guanabana and hardier, withstanding temperatures several degrees below 32°F.
ANNONA MURICATA - Soursop, Guanabana
A small, upright evergreen which cannot stand frost. It may be grown only in warmest parts of Florida or in greenhouses. The leaves are dark green and glossy. The fruit is 6-9", yellow green in color, with white flesh. The pulp is excellent for making drinks and sherbets and, though slightly sour-acid, can be eaten out-of-hand. See Soursop
From Mexico and Central America, this tropical lowland, moisture-loving tree has a fruit up to 6" in diameter. It is brownish-gray and covered with protuberances ending in hooks curved toward the stem. The flesh is bright orange and soft. See Soncoya
ANNONA RETICULATA - Custard apple, Bullock's Heart
A 25' low-branched deciduous tree, scraggly in appearance. The fruit is large, with yellow or brownish skin and a creamy pulp. Like all annonas, it cannot stand wet feet. Generally used as a rootstock for other annonas. See Annona Species
ANNONA SQUAMOSA - Sugar Apple, Sweetsop
A deciduous tree, small and open. The fruit is green, heart-shaped, 3" long, broken up by protuberances on the skin. The flesh is sweet and refreshing, considered the best of the tropical annonas. It is eaten raw, in drinks or sherbets. The flavor is best when picked before maturity and ripened in a bag. The tree does well in alkaline soils but freezes at about 27°F. See Sweetsop


  • 7th International Fruit Club Seminar. By David M. Guggenheim. 1989, #4 pp 3-10
  • A Journey to Vilcabamba - the Sacred Valley of Ecuador. By Steven Spangler. 1981 #3, pp 14-17
  • Bits & Pieces: Annonas. By Peggy Winter. 1988 #4, p 41
  • Book Review: Classification of the Genus Annona with Descriptions of New and Imperfectly Known Species. 1988 #4. p 54
  • Chelonocarpus - a New Section of the Genus Annona. By W. E. Safford. 1982 #3, pp 1-3, 28
  • Chromosome Numbers in the Annonaceae. By Wray M. Bowden. 1974 YB, pp 73-81
  • Two Scholars at the CRFG Meeting. By Clytia M. Chambers. 1980 #3 pp 13-14, 21-22
  • Update from Palm Beach. By Tommy Reese. 1982 #2, pp 19-21

ANON See Rollinia

ANONILLA - Annona palmeri

Dioecious. This large evergreen with shiny deep-green leaves is easily grown and bears large amounts of small shiny red fruits which are edible out of hand but generally used for wine or jelly. It freezes at 26°F but will recover from the roots. See Bignai
Small to medium Australian Tree. The best of the Antidesma species. It is dioecious, but a single female plant will bear a small amount of fruit. Sweeter than the bignay, the fruit are large and black. Grows well in Florida and has been grown in San Diego.



  • (Poem) A Pie in the Sky. By Charles E. Estep Sr. 1988 J, p 48
  • A Naturalist in Western China. By Ernest H. Wilson. 1976 YB, p 94
  • Adapting Apples to the Tropics. By Voon Boon Hoe. 1983 #4, pp 28-32
  • An Apple Experiment. By Marianne Friedman. 1987 #3, p 19
  • Apple Trees and Scions Via: Covered Wagon, Pack Mule, Vacation Van. By Charles E. Estep Sr. 1988 J, pp 49-56
  • Apples for a Mild Climate. By Wilbur G. Wood. 1978 YB, pp 1-2
  • Apples for Low Chill Areas. By Frank James. 1989 YB, pp 6-8
  • Bare Root Time Again. By Jim Neitzel. 1979 #1, pp 18-21
  • Book Review: North American Apples: Varieties. Rootstocks. 1981 #1, p 13
  • Containerized Layering of Malus Rootstocks. By Richard H. Munson. 1982 YB, pp 50-54
  • Crusades of an Apple Lover. By Charles E. Estep, Sr.. 1989 #2, pp 20-25
  • Cultural Nuggets for Would-be Apple Growers. Talk by Jim Rider. Reported by Melita Israel. 1989 #2, pp 16-19
  • Deciduous Fruit Varieties. By Jim Neitzel. 1980 YB, pp 20-40
  • Deciduous Fruits for Southern California. By Paul H. Thomson. 1971 #4, pp 4-8
  • Early Dawn Letter. By L.D Claypool. 1983, #2 p 2
  • Editor's Mailbag. By Peggy Winter. 1982 #3, pp 2-4
  • Exotics: County's Hope for Top Dollar. By Frank Mickadeit. 1985 #3, pp 25-27
  • Fewer Leaves Mean More Fruit. By Lynn Yarris. 1983 #4, pp 33-34
  • For the Beginner: Suggestions for New Gardeners. By Phil Clark. 1985 #2, pp 6-9
  • Gleanings: Triploid Apples. By Jim Neitzel. 1982 #3, pp 24-25
  • Gleanings: Apples. By Jim Neitzel. 1981 #4, pp 17-19
  • Gleanings: Low Chill Apples By Jim Neitzel. 1985 #3, pp 24-25
  • Gleanings: Low Chill Pears and Apples By Jim Neitzel. 1982 #2, pp 14-15
  • Growing Blueberries, Cherries, Cherimoyas, Longans, Apples in Thousand Oaks. By Robert F. Vieth. 1978 #4, pp 6-7
  • Growing Grapes and Apples in Tropical Indonesia. By Rick Parkhurst. 1981 #2, pp 3-14
  • Low Chilling Apple Varieties. By John Bregger. 1973 #2, p 4
  • Miracle of Plant Propagation. By Phil Clark. 1982 #3, pp 1-4, 29
  • News from the Hills. By David Silber. 1988 #4, pp 5-7
  • Over Emphasis On Low Chill??? By Charles E. Estep. Sr. 1988 #1, pp 6-10
  • Pest Control: Collar Rot of Apples: Prevention. By Robert W. Fitzpatrick. 1987 #2, p 24
  • Plants of Interest in Hawaii. By Peggy Winter. 1983 #3, pp 15-17
  • Rare Fruits, But Not New. By C.T. Kennedy. 1985 YB, pp 40-51
  • Rootstock Propagation: Your Choice. By Charles E. Estep. Sr. 1987 #2, pp 11-15
  • Search For an Apple , To Eat. By Charles E. Estep, Sr.. 1986 #4, pp 3-4
  • The Anna Apple in Florida. By Robert S. Hardwick. 1978 #4, pp 7-8
  • Two Million Apple Trees of Indonesia. By Surachmat Kusumo. 1983 #2, pp 12-13
  • Update on Apple Hobby. By Charles E. Estep, Sr.. 1988 #2, pp 14-15


  • A Naturalist in Western China. By Ernest H. Wilson. 1976 YB, p 93
  • Bare Root Time Again. By Jim Neitzel. 1979 #1, pp 18-21
  • CRFG Kitchen: Apricot Walnut Candy. By Rose B. Blum. 1986 #2, p 22
  • Deciduous Fruit Varieties. By Jim Neitzel. 1980 YB, pp 20-40
  • Deciduous Fruits for Southern California. By Paul H. Thomson. 1971 #4, pp 4-8
  • Editor's Mailbag. By Clytia M. Chambers. 1989 #4, pp 31-32
  • Gleanings: Apricots. By Jim Neitzel. 1985 #3, pp 24-25
  • Gold-Kist Apricot. By Leo Manuel. 1982 #1, p 4
  • Planting Seedlings of Tropical Fruit. By Walter V. Jerris. 1987 #3, pp 4-8
  • Preliminary Apricot and Peachnectarine Comparisons. By David Guggenheim. 1986 #1, pp 22-24
  • Rare Fruits, But Not New. By C.T. Kennedy. 1985 YB, pp 40-51
  • Rating Deciduous Fruits. By Robert W. Fitzpatrick. 1980 #2, pp 11-15

ARATICU See Rollinia

This Chilean pine tree is a relative of the Norfolk Island Pine, but the tiered branches are weirdly shaped, which accounts for its common name. Grown from North Carolina southward in the U.S., it is both lovely and grotesque. The seeds are boiled and eaten in Chile, where they are well liked.
ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI - Bunya-Bunya, Brunya
This Australian relative of the Monkey Puzzle grows to 150' in its native habitat and will grow well, though not that tall, in Florida and Southern California.

ARBUTUS UNEDO See Strawberry Tree


  • Mangoes in the Arizona Desert. By Alois Falkenstein, M.D. 1989 #4, pp 12-13

ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS - Breadfruit, Breadnut
An exceedingly difficult to grow tree as temperatures below 40°F kill it. Fruit is green, round, to 8" and generally seedless. A seeded form is common in the tropics and called Breadnut. Fruits are cooked as vegetables. Seeds are used like chestnuts. See Breadfruit
This S.E. Asian tree is extremely ornamental; moderately slow grower and not as cold sensitive as previously thought. The fruit is small, yellow and quite good to eat, with best flavor when picked dead ripe from the tree.
A large interesting relative of the breadfruit. Cold sensitive (27°F) but will grow in protected areas. It bears the largest of tree fruits, on the trunk and larger branches. Spiked on the outside and weighing up to 80 lbs., the flesh is edible, soft and quite aromatic; the seeds are chestnut-like when roasted. The tree grows wild in India and S.E. Asia. Will grow in Florida and Southern California but not to its full size. Only care required is watering and fertilization. See Jackfruit



  • Nostalgic Memories of North China Fruits. By Albert Fei. 1971 #1, pp 5-7


Native to North America and related to the custard apple. Cold hardy and grown as far north as New York and Michigan. This may give it promise as a rootstock for the Annonas. The fruit is edible, brown-black, with soft orange flesh tasting something like banana when ripe. The fruit must be thoroughly ripened or it is unpalatable. See Pawpaw



  • Book Review: Growing Custard Apples. Reviewed by Ron Kadish. 1988 #4, p 53
  • Cherimoya Riddle. By Jim Neitzel. 1982 #3, pp 8-12
  • Chromosome Numbers in the Annonaceae. By Wray M. Bowden. 1974 YB, pp 73-81


  • Book Review: Growing Fruit in Australia. Reviewed by Eph Konigsberg. 1983 #2, pp 28-29
  • Book Review: Tropical Tree Fruits for Australia. By P.E. Page. Reviewed by Robert R. Chambers. 1984 #4, p 26
  • Down Under. By Muriel B. Fisch. 1977 YB, pp 22-31
  • Growing Mangoes... Down Under. By David Wallace. 1988 #1, pp 13-14
  • Newsletter, RFC of Australia. Reviewed by Ron Kadish. 1989 #1, pp 22-23
  • Rare Fruit Council of Australia Common Names List. 1989 YB, pp 51-53
  • RFCA Comprehensive Guide to Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. 1989 YB, pp 54-69
  • Wild Fruits of Australia. By John M. Riley. 1982 YB, pp 68-75

AUSTRALIAN ALMOND - Terminalia canescens

AUSTRALIAN BRUSH CHERRY - Syzygium paniculatum


  • Growing Rare Fruit in Northern Calif. By John M. Riley. 1973 YB, pp 67-90

A medium-sized Asian tree similar to carambola but with fewer branches and longer leaves clustered at the branch tips. The red and white flowers develop on the trunk and lower branches; the fruit is 2-3" long, waxy, green cucumber-like and sour. They can be used to remove stains from clothing, can be pickled or cooked with sugar. See Camias
AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA - Carambola, Star Fruit
This dense, evergreen tree common in India and China grows to about 20'. Red and white flowers appear on bare branches or at leaf bases. Fruit has a thin, waxy, green-yellow, yellow or orange skin. Oblong and five-angled it is star-shaped when cut across the middle. It has a sweet, watery, slightly acid, pleasant tasting pulp that is eaten raw or preserved. Seedlings have been known to bear in 3 years. Large trees have been known to survive 26°F without damage but young trees must be protected from frost. See Carambola


  • A Mercadante Tribute. By Gray Martin. 1987 #4, p 7
  • Avocado. By Donald W. Mitchell. 1979 YB, pp 14-16
  • Avocado Flower Types. USDA, U.C. San Diego. 1983 #1, pp 7-8
  • Avocado Girdling and Grafting. By Orton Englehart. 1971 #1, p 15
  • Avocado Notes. By Bob Fitzpatrick. 1984 #2, pp 9-10
  • Avocado Pollination in the San Fernando Valley. By Phillip Frankel. 1970 #4, p 6
  • Avocados for Cold Climates. By Robert W. Fitzpatrick. 1988 #4, pp 42-43
  • Avocados Growing in San Jose. By J.W. Stephenson. 1984 #3, pp 4-5
  • Biological Control of Avocado Root Rot. By Robert W. Fitzpatrick. 1987 #2, p 16
  • Book Review: Avocado Growers Handbook. Reviewed by Bob Chambers. 1984 #1, p 20
  • Down Under. By Muriel B. Fisch. 1977 YB, pp 22-31
  • Dwarf Avocado. By Robert S. Fitzpatrick. 1982 #2, p 9
  • From the Editor's Mailbag. 1980 #4. p 4-7; 1984 #3, p 4
  • Fruits Recommended by Specialists. 1989 YB, pp 34-35
  • Further Thoughts on Adjusting to Our Drier Climate. By E. Hager, R. Watts and A. Ramirez. 1989 #4, pp 14-21
  • Giant Avocado. By Donald W. Mitchell. 1979 #2, pp 15-16
  • Growing Avocados in a Desert Climate. By N.C. Moerland. 1980 #3, pp 9-11
  • Growing Rare Fruit in Northern Calif. By John M. Riley. 1973 YB, pp 67-90
  • Herb Trees for Warm Climates. By Robert E. Bond. 1989 J, pp 43-44
  • Notes from Members, Laguna Beach, Calif. 1977 #2 p 8
  • Rare Fruit at UC Santa Cruz. By Kermit Carter. 1972 YB, p 112
  • Rare Fruits in Coastal San Diego. By David B. Lloyd. 1975 #3, pp 1-5
  • Remembered Fruits of the Philippines. By John McIntyre Jr.. 1976 YB, p 54
  • Subtropical Fruits and Nuts of Spain, Kenya and South Africa. By Muriel B. Fisch. 1975 #1, pp 6-13
  • Summer Bearing Avocado Possibilities. By Jim Neitzel. 1980 #4, pp 13-14
  • Unclassified Avocado Varieties on the Property of Joe Massidda. By John Delevoryas. 1974 YB, pp 207-214
  • Update from Palm Beach. By Tommy Reese. 1982 #2, pp 19-21
  • Winter in Santa Cruz. By Andrew P. Werner. 1976 #2, p 10

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